Online violence often includes spreading false information or sharing embarrassing, intimate, or private photos of someone on social media. It also involves sending hurtful or threatening messages on messaging apps, assuming someone else's identity, and sending offensive messages on their behalf.

Within the realm of online violence falls the so-called 'doxing,' where an individual or a group shares personal information about others without permission, such as phone numbers, addresses, workplaces, and other personal data. Furthermore, this can take the form of 'cyberstalking,' which entails continuously monitoring someone's social media profiles, sending unwanted messages, or threats, etc. A closely related negative phenomenon is online violence (cyber-bullying), which can have a significant negative impact on the mental well-being and development of young individuals.

According to UNICEF's analysis, Face-to-Face Violence and Online Violence often occur simultaneously. However, cyberattacks are somewhat different in this context because they leave a digital footprint, which can be useful as evidence when reported, helping to stop the bullying.

Among all social media platforms, children on YouTube have the highest likelihood of experiencing bullying, at 79%. Following that, Snapchat stands at 69%, TikTok at 64%, and Facebook at 49%. Additionally, girls are more likely to be victims of online violence than boys. A study revealed that 45% of women have experienced harassment on social media compared to 38% of men. This is mentioned in the handbook developed as part of the mental health program under the project "Mladi Hub - Overcoming Inequality among Young People," funded by the British Embassy in Skopje and conducted by the National Youth Council of Macedonia. The handbook provides numerous pieces of advice to young people on what they can do if they become victims of online violence, and, primarily, how they or their parents can recognize it in order to react.

The handbook states that when young individuals are subjected to online violence, they may exhibit signs such as avoiding social interactions, staying away from friends or social events, becoming isolated, experiencing a declining GPA at school, losing interest in activities they once enjoyed, being absent from school, having negative thoughts, suffering from insomnia, and experiencing changes in eating habits.

"Mladi Hub" recommends not sharing personal information with strangers on the internet or entering it on insecure and untrustworthy web pages. Additionally, it's advised to use privacy settings that allow control over what the user or other users can post about you on social media. Passwords and usernames should not be shared publicly, and the internet and social media should not be used to send inappropriate content to others.

It's also advisable to limit internet activities, meaning not being online all the time. Good practices include regularly changing passwords and not sharing too much personal information on profiles.

Recommendations for countering online violence include informing the school (if the violence comes from specific classmates) and talking to parents. Online violence can also be reported to the Ministry of Interior,, and the Ministry of Education and Science has provided an e-mail for reporting violence in schools:, or These email addresses are used to report school violence so that institutions can react promptly and prevent more serious situations.

UNICEF also offers a series of other recommendations for each social media platform separately, on how people, especially young individuals, can protect themselves from online violence.